Addition of fractions is one of mathematics topics which are learned by elementary school students. However, in general, students’ achievement on this topic is not good enough. The possible cause is because students find some difficulties when they are learning the domain of fractions. As Prediger (2006) wrote that in many different countries, empirical studies on students’ competencies and conceptions in the domain of fractions have shown enormous difficulties. In term of addition as one of operations applied in fractions, the relationship between integers and fractions is sometimes dangerous to students as they tend to analogize the concept. They often choose the easiest way to solve addition of fractions problems by using this following rule. Read the rest of this entry »
Inquiry-based learning is one of the instructional approaches which teachers implement in science learning. Related to this issue, Van Rens et al. (2009) stated that for some decades, inquiry tasks have been a feature of school science in various countries. A research in high school biology students in Israel found that students felt more involved in the project and get deep understanding through inquiry learning (Sadeh & Zion, 2011). The similar trends are also revealed in both physic in the United States and chemistry in The Netherlands (for a review see McBride et al., 2004; Van Rens et al., 2009). In general, inquiry as an instructional approach has shown positive effects on students’ understanding of science concepts.
Talking about inquiry, it is defined as seeking information by questioning (Exline, 2004). Moreover, Exline explained that the process of inquiring begins with gathering information and data through applying the human senses which are seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. Read the rest of this entry »
The recent education system in Indonesia emphasizes the development of students’ thinking skill. According to the regulation of Indonesian education system, “education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have spiritual powers religiously, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed themselves, the community, the nation, and the state.” The idea is in line with the education in enlightenment era. As it was mentioned, “during the Enlightenment, which is also called the Age of Reason educators believed people could improve their lives and society by using their reason, their powers of critical thinking” (cited from http://education14.blogspot.nl/2008/11/viii-education-during-renaissance.html). The development of students’ thinking skill is the main purpose of national education system. Read the rest of this entry »
David Eugene Smith
Hipparchus (180 B.C – 125 B.C), the greatest of Greek astronomers, was born at Nicaea and died in Rhodes. His famous work on astronomy became the fundamental principle of science. As he needed to measure angles and distance on a sphere for his work, he developed a kind of spherical trigonometry. He made computation of chords of angles and in graphic solution of spherical triangles. In those computations, Hipparchus found some trigonometric formulas such as sin (AÂ±B), cos (AÂ±B), and the radius of the circumscribed circle (R=abc/4âˆ†). He also wrote about the theory of stereographic projection, a phase of geometry which has been proposed by Agatharchus (470 B.C). The theory was used by Hipparchus to represent the projection of the celestial sphere upon plane of the equator. He listed 850 fixed stars which increased to 1022 by Ptolemy (150 B.C) and there was no significant increase until modern time. Hipparchus also gave contribution in the making of Athenian Calendar. Read the rest of this entry »
In our daily life, we are certainly familiar with these following things:
If we look at the objects carefully, we will find that those things have the same shape. Yes, the objects are equally formed one of solid figures with curved surfaces, one of learning materials which have been learned in Elementary School. As we have been learned, solid figures with curved surfaces consists of three types namely cylinder, cone and sphere. What about the things above, are they cylinders, cones or spheres? Look at the objects around us and find the other objects which have the same shape with the objects above! Read the rest of this entry »
Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, kita pasti tidak asing dengan benda-benda berikut ini:
Jika kita perhatikan benda-benda di atas dengan seksama, akan kita temukan bahwa benda-benda tersebut memiliki kesamaan bentuk. Ya, benda-benda tersebut sama-sama membentuk salah satu bangun ruang dan sisi lengkung, sebuah materi geometri yang sudah dipelajari di Sekolah Dasar. Sebagaimana telah dipelajari, bangun ruang dan sisi lengkung terdiri atas tiga jenis yaitu tabung, kerucut dan bola. Bagaimana dengan benda-benda di atas, berbentuk tabung, kerucut atau bola? Perhatikan sekitar kita dan temukan benda-benda lain yang memiliki kesamaan bentuk dengan benda-benda di atas! Read the rest of this entry »
Nikmatul Husna (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sri Rejeki (email@example.com)
Uang adalah salah satu benda yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dalam kehidupan kita. Uang merupakan alat yang digunnakan untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli. Oleh karena itu, hendaknya setiap orang dapat memahami dengan baik nilai mata uang.
Materi mengenai uang mulai dipelajari siswa di kelas III Sekolah Dasar. Siswa akan mempelajari mengenai nilai-nilai mata uang dan kesetaraan dari nilai mata uang. Dalam mempelajari materi ini, kita dapat mengaitkannya dengan situasi yang sering dijumpai siswa. Hal ini sesuai dengan yang diungkapkan oleh Freudenthal tentang didactical phenomenolgy. Didaktikal fenomenologis adalah menggunakan analisis dari kejadian di dunia nyata sebagai sumber dari matematika. Hal yang penting dalam didaktikal fenomenologis adalah fenomena-fenomena nyata yang terjadi dapat memberikan kontribusi dalam matematika, bagaimana siswa dapat menghubungkan fenomena-fenomena tersebut dan bagaimana konsep-konsep muncul kepada siswa. (Freudenthal,2002:12) Read the rest of this entry »