The recent education system in Indonesia emphasizes the development of students’ thinking skill. According to the regulation of Indonesian education system, “education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have spiritual powers religiously, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and skills needed themselves, the community, the nation, and the state.” The idea is in line with the education in enlightenment era. As it was mentioned, “during the Enlightenment, which is also called the Age of Reason educators believed people could improve their lives and society by using their reason, their powers of critical thinking” (cited from http://education14.blogspot.nl/2008/11/viii-education-during-renaissance.html). The development of students’ thinking skill is the main purpose of national education system.
However, when we look at the access of education for the citizen, it is not as in the enlightenment era because the government gives statutory rights of access to secondary education to all. There is no discrimination between boys and girls related to the access of education. The idea is in line with the system of education in industrial era. Moreover, there are also some aspects which are similar with the idea of education in industrial era. The child-center education in the industrial era is similar with the idea of students-center education in Indonesia. Furthermore, the industrial age emphasized the compulsory education and in Indonesian education system also emphasizes compulsory education which is the 6 years elementary school and 3 years junior high school. In addition, industrial era, “schooling provided an increasingly important foundation for society.” And, this principle is strongly similar with how Indonesia tries to focus on developing the society through education in school.